What causes miscarriage?
Abortion includes spontaneous abortion and artificial abortion. Spontaneous abortion is one of the most common pregnancy complications in obstetrics and gynecology, with an incidence rate of 10%-15%, 80% of which occur within 12 weeks of pregnancy, and many women are recurrent Miscarriage (RSA).
Don't be too alarmed about a spontaneous abortion, even if it is not treated, it is normal for most people to get pregnant again. For recurrent miscarriage, it is necessary to treat the cause after diagnosis. The common causes of miscarriage are as follows:
1. Genetic causes: common chromosomal abnormalities in couples and embryos.
Parental chromosomal abnormalities: chromosomal abnormalities include chromosomal translocations, mosaicism, deletions or inversions, among which chromosomal balanced translocations and Roche translocations are the most common. Although chromosomal balanced translocations may not have clinical manifestations themselves, their risk of miscarriage will increase a lot when they give birth to the next generation. At this time, both spouses can use genetic counseling to choose a suitable reproductive strategy, such as third-generation IVF or Prenatal diagnosis. baby bottle warmer.
When the parents' chromosomes are normal, the embryo's chromosomes are abnormal: Embryo chromosomal abnormalities are the most common cause of recurrent miscarriage. If the parents are older, you can consider prenatal diagnosis or third-generation IVF. If the parents are in the best fertile period, the risk of re-miscarriage is small, and it is recommended to get pregnant normally.
2. Abnormal uterine anatomy: such as cervical insufficiency, congenital malformations of the uterus, intrauterine adhesions, uterine fibroids, adenomyosis, etc., among which cervical insufficiency is an important cause of late spontaneous abortion. Pelvic ultrasound can be used to determine whether there is abnormal uterine development, whether there is uterine fibroids or adenomyosis, and whether there is pelvic disease.
3. Female endocrine diseases: including corpus luteum insufficiency, polycystic ovary syndrome, abnormal thyroid function, diabetes, hyperprolactinemia, etc.
4. Reproductive tract disease: Patients with recurrent miscarriage have a higher chance of positive reproductive tract infection, but there is not necessarily a causal relationship. If you suffer from bacterial vaginosis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum infection, etc., active treatment is recommended before pregnancy again.
5. Immune factors: including autoimmune abnormalities and alloimmune abnormalities, the former is due to female autoimmune diseases, including antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis Diseases, undifferentiated connective tissue diseases, etc. These diseases produce auto-antibodies, which can lead to coagulation and immune dysfunction, which can lead to miscarriage. The latter causes miscarriage by complicated mechanisms, which are related to human leukocyte antigens, abnormal cellular immunity, and abnormal Th1/Th2 cytokines. , Complement system abnormalities, lack of blocking antibodies and other factors are related. It is still in the research stage and is often referred to as "unexplained recurrent miscarriage."
6. Systemic factors: Severe systemic infections, TORCH infections, high fever, heart failure, combined with severe medical and surgical diseases can all lead to miscarriage.
7. Other adverse factors: Recurrent miscarriage is also related to many other adverse factors, including adverse environmental factors, adverse psychological factors, excessive physical labor, smoking, alcoholism, excessive coffee consumption, drug abuse, drug abuse and other bad habits, etc. May cause miscarriage.
In addition to the above reasons, poor quality of the father’s sperm may also lead to miscarriage. Studies have shown that multiple abortions may be related to low sperm quality. Therefore, if the pregnant mother has multiple miscarriages and the above-mentioned reasons are excluded clinically, the other half can check the sperm quality. If the father's sperm fragmentation rate is high, it will indeed lead to the occurrence of miscarriage.
It is precisely because the reasons behind the miscarriage are complex, and some are even "unexplained", it is not easy to cause a miscarriage.